Paul E. Stackelberg
Zoltan Szabo
Bryant Jurgens
2017
Data for Radium Mobility and the Age of Groundwater in Public-drinking-water Supplies from the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System, North-Central USA: Table 2. Detailed information on the calibration of dissolved gas models to dissolved gas concentrations (neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and nitrogen).
Tabular Digital Data
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
https://doi.org/10.5066/F7BR8QP0
Paul E. Stackelberg
Zoltan Szabo
Bryant Jurgens
2017
Radium mobility and the age of groundwater in public-drinking-water supplies from the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, north-central USA
Journal Article
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Applied Geochemistry
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2017.11.002
High radium (Ra) concentrations in potable portions of the Cambrian-Ordovician (C-O) aquifer system were investigated using water-quality data and environmental tracers ( 3H, 3Hetrit, SF6 , 14C and 4Herad) of groundwater age from 80 public-supply wells (PSWs). Groundwater ages were estimated by calibration of tracers to lumped parameter models and ranged from modern (1 Myr) in the most downgradient, confined portions of the potable system. More than 80 and 40 percent of mean groundwater ages were older than 1000 and 50,000 yr, respectively. Anoxic, Fe-reducing conditions and increased mineralization develop with time in the aquifer system and mobilize Ra into solution resulting in the frequent occurrence of combined Ra (Rac = 226Ra + 228Ra) at concentrations exceeding the USEPA MCL of 185 mBq/L (5 pCi/L). The distribution of the three Ra isotopes comprising total Ra (Rat = 224Ra + 226Ra + 228Ra) differed across the aquifer system. The concentrations of 224Ra and 228Ra were strongly correlated and comprised a larger proportion of the Rat concentration in samples from the regionally unconfined area, where arkosic sandstones provide an enhanced source for progeny from the 232Th decay series. 226Ra comprised a larger proportion of the Rat concentration in samples from downgradient confined regions. Concentrations of Rat were significantly greater in samples from the regionally confined area of the aquifer system because of the increase in 226Ra concentrations there as compared to the regionally unconfined area. 226Ra distribution coefficients decreased substantially with anoxic conditions and increasing ionic strength of groundwater (mineralization), indicating that Ra is mobilized to solution from solid phases of the aquifer as sorption capacity is diminished. The amount of 226Ra released from solid phases by alpha-recoil mechanisms and retained in solution increases relative to the amount of Ra sequestered by adsorption processes or co-precipitation with barite as sorption capacity and the concentration of Ba decreases. Although 226Ra occurred at concentrations greater than 224Ra or 228Ra, the ingestion exposure risk was greater for 228Ra owing to its greater toxicity. In addition, 224Ra added substantial alpha-particle radioactivity to potable samples from the C-O aquifer system. Thus, monitoring for Ra isotopes and gross-alpha-activity (GAA) is important in upgradient, regionally unconfined areas as downgradient, and GAA measurements made within 72 h of sample collection would best capture alpha-particle radiation from the short-lived 224Ra.
Dissolved gas and environmental tracer data were collected from drinking-water wells that withdraw water from the Cambrian-Ordovician in 2014 to understand the age and vulnerability of the aquifer to natural and anthropogenic contaminants.
CamOrd_Radium_Table2.xlsx contains detailed information on the calibration of dissolved gas models to dissolved gas concentrations (neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and nitrogen). Calibration was done using methods described by Aeschbach-Hertig and others (1999) with modifications to include nitrogen gas (Weiss 1970). In most cases, a single set of noble gas data (neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) were used to determine recharge conditions (recharge temperature, excess air or entrapped air, and fractionation). In cases where noble gas data were not available, multiple analyses of nitrogen and argon (collected sequentially on the same sample date) were used to determine recharge conditions.
CamOrd_Radium_Table_Structures_and_Abbreviations.xlsx contains a description of each tables's structure, a list of abbreviations contained in the tables, and the definition of each abbreviation.
20140326
20141001
ground condition
Not planned
-97.514648437199
-82.22167968781
49.410688528111
35.924290222685
USGS Thesaurus
radium
groundwater age
Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system
radium 226 distribution coefficient
alpha recoil
dissolved gas
lumped parameter modeling
recharge temperature
NAWQA
nawqa
cycle 3
water quality
USGS Metadata Identifier
USGS:59ee67abe4b0220bbd976325
Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)
Illinois
Iowa
Michigan
Minnesota
Wisconsin
None. Please see 'Distribution Information' for details.
Acknowledgment of the Originator when using the dataset as a source. Users are advised to read the data set's metadata thoroughly to understand appropriate use and data limitations.
Paul E Stackelberg
U.S. Geological Survey
mailing and physical
425 Jordan Road
Troy
NY
12180
United States
518-285-5652
pestack@usgs.gov
National Water-Quality Assessment project
Environment as of Metadata Creation: Microsoft Windows 7 Version 6.1 (Build 7601) Service Pack 1; Esri ArcGIS 10.3.1 (Build 4959) Service Pack N/A (Build N/A)
Data are checked by individual U.S. Geological Survey science center personnel before entry into the National Water Information System (NWIS).
Results from TracerLPM are documented in Jurgens, B.C., Böhlke, J.K., and Eberts, S.M., 2012, TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report 4-F3, 60 p.
No formal logical accuracy tests were conducted
Data set is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted
No formal positional accuracy tests were conducted
Aeschbach-Hertig, W.
Peeters, F.
Beyerle, U.
Kipfer, R.
1999
Interpretation of dissolved atmospheric noble gases in natural waters
Publication
Hoboken, NJ
Water Resources Research
Aeschbach-Hertig, W., F. Peeters, U. Beyerle, and R. Kipfer, 1999, Interpretation of dissolved atmospheric noble gases in natural waters, Water Resources Research, 35(9), 2779–2792, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999WR900130
https://doi.org/10.1029/1999WR900130
Digital and/or Hardcopy Resources
19990101
19991231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
John N. Andrews
David J. Lee
1979
Inert gases in groundwater from the Bunter Sandstone of England as indicators of age and palaeoclimatic trends
Publication
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Journal of Hydrology
Andrews, J.N. and Lee, D.J., 1979, Inert gases in groundwater from the Bunter Sandstone of England as indicators of age and palaeoclimatic trends: Journal of Hydrology 41, 233-252, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(79)90064-7
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(79)90064-7
Digital and/or Hardcopy Resources
19780922
19781215
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
Eurybiades Busenberg
L. Niel Plummer
2000
Dating young groundwater with sulfur hexafluoride: Natural and anthropogenic sources of sulfur hexafluoride
Publication
Hoboken, NJ
Water Resources Research
Busenberg, E., and L. N. Plummer, 2000, Dating young groundwater with sulfur hexafluoride: Natural and anthropogenic sources of sulfur hexafluoride, Water Resources Research, 36(10), 3011–3030, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900151
https://doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900151
Digital and/or Hardcopy Resources
20000101
20001231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
Quan Hua
Mike Barbetti
Andrzej Z. Rakowski
2013
Atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950-2010
Publication
New York, NY
Radiocarbon
Hua, Q., Barbetti, M., and Rakowski, A.Z., 2013, Atmospheric radiocarbon for the period 1950-2010: Radiocarbon, v. 55, no. 4, p. 2059–2072, https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.v55i2.16177.
https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.v55i2.16177
Digital and/or Hardcopy Resources
19500101
20101231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
Andrew G. Hunt
20150812
U.S. Geological Survey Noble Gas Laboratory’s standard operating procedures for the measurement of dissolved gas in water samples
Publication
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
Hunt, A.G., 2015, Noble Gas Laboratory’s standard operating procedures for the measurement of dissolved gas in water samples: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 5, chap. A11, 22 p., https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/tm5A11
https://dx.doi.org/10.3133/tm5A11
Digital and/or Hardcopy Resources
20150812
20150813
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
Bryant C. Jurgens
J.K. Bohlke
Sandra M. Eberts
2012
TracerLPM (version 1): An Excel workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracers
Publication
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
Jurgens, B.C., Böhlke, J.K., and Eberts, S.M., 2012, TracerLPM (Version 1): An Excel® workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report 4-F3, 60 p., https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/4-f3/
https://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/4-f3/
Digital Resource
20120101
20121231
publication date
TracerLPM
Software used for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs).
George Edward Manger
1963
Porosity and bulk density of sedimentary rocks
Publication
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
Manger, G.E., 1963, Porosity and bulk density of sedimentary rocks, in: U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1144-E (Ed.), p. 55., https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1144e/report.pdf
https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/1144e/report.pdf
Digital and/or Hardcopy Resources
19630101
19631231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program.
Robert L. Michel
1989
Tritium deposition over the continental United States, 1953-1983
Publication
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
Michel, R.L., 1989, Tritium deposition over the continental United States, 1953-1983 in: Atmospheric Deposition (Proceedings of the Baltimore Symposium, May 1989, IAHS Publ. No. 179, http://hydrologie.org/redbooks/a179/iahs_179_0109.pdf
http://hydrologie.org/redbooks/a179/iahs_179_0109.pdf
Digital and/or Hardcopy Resources
19530101
19831231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
This report describes protocols and recommended procedures for the collection of water-quality samples and related data from wells for the NAWQA Program.
National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility
2015
General statement of 14C procedures at the National Ocean Sciences AMS Facility
Web Page
Woods Hole, MA
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility, 2015, General statement of 14C procedures at the National Ocean Sciences AMS Facility: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, accessed July 2016 at http://www.whoi.edu/nosams/general-statement-of-14c-procedures
http://www.whoi.edu/nosams/general-statement-of-14c-procedures
Digital Resources
20150101
20170908
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
Jeffrey D. Phillips
Joseph S. Duval
Russell A. Ambroziak
1993
National geophysical data grids; gamma-ray, gravity, magnetic, and topographic data for the conterminous United States
Publication
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
Phillips, J. D., Duval, J. S., and Ambroziak, R. A., 1993, National geophysical data grids; gamma-ray, gravity, magnetic, and topographic data for the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series DDS-9, accessed August 30, 2010 at URL http://crustal.usgs.gov/geophysics/North_America.html.
http://crustal.usgs.gov/geophysics/North_America.html
Digital Resources
19930101
19931231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
Paula J. Reimer
Edouard Bard
Alex Bayliss
J. Warren Beck
Paul G. Blackwell
Christopher Bronk Ramsey
Caitlin E. Buck
Hai Cheng
R. Lawrence Edwards
Michael Friedrich
Pieter M. Grootes
Thomas P. Guilderson
Haflidi Haflidason
Irka Hajdas
Christine Hatté
Timothy J. Heaton
Dirk L. Hoffmann
Alan G. Hogg
Konrad A. Hughen
K. Felix Kaiser
Bernd Kromer
Sturt W. Manning
Mu Niu
Ron W. Reimer
David A. Richards
E. Marian Scott
John R. Southon
Richard A. Staff
Christian S. M. Turney
Johannes van der Plicht
2013
IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0–50,000 Years cal BP
Publication
The University of Arizona
Radiocarbon
Reimer, P. J.; Bard, Edouard; Bayliss, Alex; Beck, J. W.; Blackwell, P. G.; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Buck, C. E.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.; Friedrich, M.; Grootes, P. M.; Guilderson, T. P.; Haflidason, H.; Hajdas, Irka; Hatte, C; Heaton, T. J.; Hoffman, D.L.; Hogg, A. G.; Hughen, K. A.; Kaiser, K. F.; Kromer, B.; Manning, S. W.; Niu, M.; Reimer, R. W.; Richards, D. A.; Scott, E.M.; Southon, J. R.; Staff, R.A.; Turney, C. S. M.; and Van Der Plicht, Johannes, 2013, IntCal13 and Marine13 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP: Radiocarbon, v. 55., no. 4, p. 1869–1887, https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/radiocarbon/article/view/16947
https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/radiocarbon/article/view/16947
Digital Resources
19930101
19931231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
D. Kip Solomon
Peter G. Cook
2000
3H and 3He
Publication
Boston, MA
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Solomon D.K. and Cook P.G., 2000, 3H and 3He. In: Cook P.G., Herczeg A.L. (eds) Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology. Springer, Boston, MA
Digital Resources
20000101
20001231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
D. Kip Solomon
2000
4He in groundwater
Publication
Boston, MA
Kluwer Academic Publishers
Solomon D.K., 2000, 4He in groundwater. In: Cook P.G., Herczeg A.L. (eds) Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology. Springer, Boston, MA
Digital Resources
20000101
20001231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
Thatcher, L.L.
Janzer, V.J.
Edwards, K.W.
1977
Methods for the determination of radioactive substances in water
Publication
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
Thatcher, L.L., Janzer, V.J., and Edwards, K.W., 1977, Methods for the determination of radioactive substances in water: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, book 5, chap. A5, 95 p., https://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5a5/
https://pubs.usgs.gov/twri/twri5a5/
Digital Resources
19770101
19771231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
U.S. Geological Survey
2010
The Reston Chlorofluorocarbon Laboratory, analytical procedures for dissolved gas
Web Page
Reston, VA
U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Geological Survey, 2010, The Reston Chlorofluorocarbon Laboratory, analytical procedures for dissolved gas, accessed September 2010 at http://water.usgs.gov/lab/dissolved-gas/lab/analytical_procedures/
http://water.usgs.gov/lab/dissolved-gas/lab/analytical_procedures/
Digital Resources
20150101
20151231
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
U.S.Geological Survey
2016
CFC and SF6 Air Curves
Web Site
Reston, VA
U.S.Geological Survey
U.S. Geological Survey, 2016, CFC and SF6 Air Curves: U.S. Geological Survey Web Site, https://water.usgs.gov/lab/software/air_curve/index.html.
https://water.usgs.gov/lab/software/air_curve/index.html
Digital Resources
19970101
20150101
publication date
Water-Quality Data Collection
Web site provides protocols (requirements and recommendations) and guidelines for USGS personnel who are responsible for the collection and quality assurance of such data.
Weiss, R.F.
1970
The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen and argon in water and seawater
Publication
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Deep Sea Research and Oceanographic Abstracts
Weiss, R. F., 1970, The solubility of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in water and seawater, Deep Sea Research, vol. 17, pp. 721-735, https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(70)90037-9
https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-7471(70)90037-9
Digital and/or Hardcopy Resources
19700112
19700113
publication date
Data Collection Protocols and Procedures
Reference for data analysis and interpretation
Concentrations of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in femtomoles per kilogram and argon and nitrogen in milligrams per liter were analyzed at the USGS Groundwater Dating Laboratory (formerly Reston Chlorofluorocarbon Laboratory; U.S. Geological Survey, 2010). Concentrations of noble gases (helium, neon, argon, xenon, and nitrogen) in cubic centimeters at standard temperature and pressure per gram of water and helium isotopes were analyzed at the USGS Noble Gas Laboratory (Hunt, 2015). Concentrations of carbon-14 (14C) in percent modern (pM) were analyzed at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute were de-normalized and converted to percent modern carbon (pmC) for age dating analysis (National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility, 2015). Tritium (3H) was analyzed by electrolytic enrichment-liquid scintillation at the USGS Stable Isotope and Tritium Laboratory in Menlo Park, California (Thatcher et al., 1977).
Regional histories of atmospheric tracers in recharge were compiled and used as input to the program TracerLPM [Jurgens et al., 2012] for computing groundwater ages. Tritium concentrations in precipitation from 1953 to 2002 for the area covering the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system were estimated from updated monthly 3H data. Atmospheric tritium records were compiled for 10 latitude-longitude combinations covering the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system (Michel, 1989; written communication, 2011). Northern Hemisphere atmospheric mixing ratios of SF6 were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Dating Laboratory (U.S. Geological Survey, 2016). Atmospheric records of 14C were compiled by combining data from the 2013 international radiocarbon calibration curve (IntCal13; Reimer et al., 2013) with modern historical tropospheric 14C data for the northern hemisphere (zone 2; Hua and others, 2013). Graphical relationships between measured 3H, tritiogenic helium-3 (3Hetrit), SF6, and 14C indicated that concentrations of 14C have been diluted by 14C-free sources of 14C in water recharged since 1950. Dilution of the atmospheric 14C signal was estimated to be about 30% (i.e 70% of the atmospheric signal) and this dilution was likely caused by the dissolution of soil carbonates during infiltration of precipitation in recharge areas of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system. Additional dilution of 14C in the saturated zone may also occur from dissolution of dolomite and limestone sequences of the aquifer but these reactions were not accounted for in the modeling of groundwater ages using 14C. Without correction for these reactions, mean groundwater ages will be older but differences between corrected and uncorrected ages may only be a few thousand years in most samples. Radiogenic helium (4Herad) concentrations were calculated using a helium production rate of 1.89 X 10-10 cubic centimeters at standard temperature and pressure per gram of water (cc/g) of water, which was 50 times the natural production rate of 3.78 X 10-12. The natural production rate was determined from using the equation of Andrews and Lee (1979) with average uranium and thorium sediment concentrations of 1.63 and 5.23 ppm, respectively (Phillips el al., 1993), a porosity of 0.2, and a bulk density of 2.2 (Manger, 1963).
Mean groundwater ages were computed by calibrating lumped parameter models (LPMs) to concentrations of tracers (3H, 3Hetrit, SF6, 14C, and 4Herad) in samples using the computer program TracerLPM (Jurgens and others, 2012). The LPM used to compute final groundwater ages reported in table 1 was based on sample 3H activities. The dispersion model (DM) was used to determine groundwater ages for samples with 3H equal to or above 4 TU because this activity was indicative of water that had been recharged entirely or almost entirely since 1950. Six samples had 3H from about 4 to 6 TU and these samples usually were accompanied with measureable amounts of 3Hetrit and SF6. Mean groundwater ages for these samples ranged from 19.6 to 29.2 years. The piston-flow model (PFM) was used to determine mean groundwater ages for samples with 3H below 0.3 TU. This activity was indicative of water that that had been recharged entirely or almost entirely before 1950. Since 3H was largely absent in these samples, the PFM was calibrated to 4Herad concentrations or to 14C concentrations when 4Herad was less than 2 times the solubility concentration of helium, which was about 4.5 X 10-8. The PFM was computed for 64 (80% of samples) samples and mean groundwater ages for these samples ranged from 61.5 to over 1.4 million years. A binary dispersion-piston-flow model (BMM-DM-PFM) was used to determine mean groundwater ages for samples with 3H between 0.3 and 4 TU because these samples are mixtures of groundwater with a distinct portion of the water recharged after 1950 and another portion that was recharged before 1950, commonly 1,000 years or more. Nine samples were modeled as binary mixtures and the fraction of young water in the mixtures ranged from 1% to 53%. Additional details about the models and ages derived from them are given in the manuscript associated with this data release.
2014
2014
2014
Table 1 Excel File
Table containing dissolved gas modeling results
U.S. Geological Survey
Sample Information: Study Unit
Sample group 1
U.S. Geological Survey
Location of sample group 1. Column A in spreadsheet.
Sample Information: Study Area
Sample group 2
U.S. Geological Survey
Location of sample group 2. Column B in spreadsheet.
Sample Information: USGS Station ID
USGS Station identification no.
U.S. Geological Survey
USGS Station identification no. Column C in spreadsheet.
Sample Information: Site ID
Site identification no.
U.S. Geological Survey
Site identification no. Column D in spreadsheet.
Sample Information: Sample Date
Date of sample
U.S. Geological Survey
Date of sample. Column E in spreadsheet.
Sample Information: Record Number / Lab ID
Record number or lab identification number of measured gas data
U.S. Geological Survey
Record number or lab identification number of measured gas data. Column F in spreadsheet.
Initial Model Values: Salinity, per mil
Salinity of water, in per mil
U.S. Geological Survey
Salinity of water, in per mil. Column G in spreadsheet.
Initial Model Values: Recharge Elevation, meters
Elevation of recharge area, in meters above land surface
U.S. Geological Survey
Elevation of recharge area, in meters above land surface. Column H in spreadsheet.
Initial Model Values: Temperature
Temperature of water at time of recharge, in degrees Celsius
U.S. Geological Survey
Temperature of water at time of recharge, in degrees Celsius. Column I in spreadsheet.
Initial Model Values: Excess Air
Excess air or entrapped air (CE model only) of water at time of recharge, in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Excess air or entrapped air (CE model only) of water at time of recharge, in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water. Column J in spreadsheet.
Initial Model Values: Fractionation
Fractionation factor of gases (CE or PR models) of water at time of recharge, dimensionless
U.S. Geological Survey
Fractionation factor of gases (CE or PR models) of water at time of recharge, dimensionless. Column K in spreadsheet.
Initial Model Values: Excess Nitrogen Gas
Amount of nitrogen gas that is in excess of solubility and excess air component, in milligrams per liter as nitrogen
U.S. Geological Survey
Amount of nitrogen gas that is in excess of solubility and excess air component, in milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Column L in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Noble Gas Model
Name of noble gas model used in optimization
U.S. Geological Survey
Name of noble gas model used in optimization. Column M in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Model Parameters
Short name of model parameters included in optimization
U.S. Geological Survey
Short name of model parameters included in optimization. Column N in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Chi-Square
Chi square test statistic (sum of weighted squared residuals)
U.S. Geological Survey
Chi square test statistic (sum of weighted squared residuals). Column O in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Probability
Chi-square probability of chi-square error when degrees of freedom is greater than 1
U.S. Geological Survey
Chi-square probability of chi-square error when degrees of freedom is greater than 1. Column P in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Recharge Temp, degrees Celsius
Temperature of water at time of recharge, in degrees Celsius
U.S. Geological Survey
Temperature of water at time of recharge, in degrees Celsius. Column Q in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Recharge Temp Err, 1-Sigma
Temperature error (1-sigma), in degrees Celsius
U.S. Geological Survey
Temperature error (1-sigma), in degrees Celsius. Column R in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Excess Air, cc STP/kg of H2O
Excess air of water at time of recharge, in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Excess air of water at time of recharge, in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water. Column S in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Excess Air Err, 1-Sigma
Excess air error (1-sigma), in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Excess air error (1-sigma), in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water. Column T in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Entrapped Air, cc STP/kg of H2O
Entrapped air of water at time of recharge, in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Entrapped air of water at time of recharge, in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water. Column U in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Entrapped Air Err, 1-Sigma
Entrapped air error (1-sigma), in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Entrapped air error (1-sigma), in cubic centimeters per kilogram of water. Column V in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Fractionation, dimensionless
Fractionation factor of gases (CE or PR models) of water at time of recharge, dimensionless
U.S. Geological Survey
Fractionation factor of gases (CE or PR models) of water at time of recharge, dimensionless. Column W in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Fractionation Err, 1-Sigma
Fractionation error (1-sigma), dimensionless
U.S. Geological Survey
Fractionation error (1-sigma), dimensionless. Column X in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Excess Nitrogen, mg/L as N
Amount of nitrogen gas that is in excess of solubility and excess air component, in milligrams per liter as nitrogen
U.S. Geological Survey
Amount of nitrogen gas that is in excess of solubility and excess air component, in milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Column Y in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Excess Nitrogen Err, 1-Sigma
Excess nitrogen gas error (1-sigma), in milligrams per liter as nitrogen
U.S. Geological Survey
Excess nitrogen gas error (1-sigma), in milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Column Z in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Salinity, per mil
Salinity of water, in per mil
U.S. Geological Survey
Salinity of water, in per mil. Column AA in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Salinity Err, 1-Sigma
Salinity of water error (1-sigma), in per mil
U.S. Geological Survey
Salinity of water error (1-sigma), in per mil. Column AB in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Recharge Elevation, meters
Elevation of recharge area, in meters above land surface
U.S. Geological Survey
Elevation of recharge area, in meters above land surface. Column AC in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Recharge Elevation Err, 1-Sigma
Recharge elevation error (1-sigma), in meters above land surface
U.S. Geological Survey
Recharge elevation error (1-sigma), in meters above land surface. Column AD in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Gases Modeled
Short name of gases used in model optimization
U.S. Geological Survey
Short name of gases used in model optimization. Column AE in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: HiGas
Short name of gas with largest misfit between measured and modeled concentration
U.S. Geological Survey
Short name of gas with largest misfit between measured and modeled concentration. Column AF in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Hi Gas Chi-Sqr
Chi-square of gas with largest misfit between measured and modeled concentration
U.S. Geological Survey
Chi-square of gas with largest misfit between measured and modeled concentration. Column AG in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Number of iterations
Number of iterations to achieve optimization fit
U.S. Geological Survey
Number of iterations to achieve optimization fit. Column AH in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Model date stamp
Date and time when optimization was performed
U.S. Geological Survey
Date and time when optimization was performed. Column AI in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Model Comments
Comments regarding potential issues about model fit or gas measurement/sampling
U.S. Geological Survey
Comments regarding potential issues about model fit or gas measurement/sampling. Column AJ in spreadsheet.
Dissolved Gas Modeling Results: Model ID
Unique identification number for tracking model runs
U.S. Geological Survey
Unique identification number for tracking model runs. Column AK in spreadsheet.
Gas Deltas: Delta Helium, percent
Delta Helium, percent
U.S. Geological Survey
Delta Helium, percent. Column AL in spreadsheet.
Gas Deltas: Delta Neon, percent
Delta Neon, percent
U.S. Geological Survey
Delta Neon, percent. Column AM in spreadsheet.
Gas Deltas: Delta Argon, percent
Delta Argon, percent
U.S. Geological Survey
Delta Argon, percent. Column AN in spreadsheet.
Gas Deltas: Delta Krypton, percent
Delta Krypton, percent
U.S. Geological Survey
Delta Krypton, percent. Column AO in spreadsheet.
Gas Deltas: Delta Xenon, percent
Delta Xenon, percent
U.S. Geological Survey
Delta Xenon, percent. Column AP in spreadsheet.
Gas Deltas: Delta Nitrogen, percent
Delta Nitrogen, percent
U.S. Geological Survey
Delta Nitrogen, percent. Column AQ in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Helium measured, cc STP/g of H2O
Helium measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AR in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Helium error, cc STP/g of H2O
Helium error, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium error, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AS in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Neon measured, cc STP/g of H2O
Neon measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AT in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Neon error, cc STP/g of H2O
Neon error, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon error, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AU in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Argon measured, cc STP/g of H2O
Argon measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AV in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Argon error, cc STP/g of H2O
Argon error, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon error, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AW in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Krypton measured, cc STP/g of H2O
Krypton measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AX in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Krypton error, cc STP/g of H2O
Krypton error, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton error, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AY in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Xenon measured, cc STP/g of H2O
Xenon measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column AZ in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Xenon error, cc STP/g of H2O
Xenon error, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon error, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column BA in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Nitrogen measured, cc STP/g of H2O
Nitrogen measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen measured, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column BB in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, cc STP/g of H20: Nitrogen error, cc STP/g of H2O
Nitrogen error, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen error, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column BC in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Helium measured, mMoles / L
Helium measured, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium measured, millimoles per liter of water. Column BD in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Helium error, mMoles / L
Helium error, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium error, millimoles per liter of water. Column BE in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Neon measured, mMoles / L
Neon measured, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon measured, millimoles per liter of water. Column BF in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Neon error, mMoles / L
Neon error, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon error, millimoles per liter of water. Column BG in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Argon measured, mMoles / L
Argon measured, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon measured, millimoles per liter of water. Column BH in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Argon error, mMoles / L
Argon error, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon error, millimoles per liter of water. Column BI in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Krypton measured, mMoles / L
Krypton measured, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton measured, millimoles per liter of water. Column BJ in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Krypton error, mMoles / L
Krypton error, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton error, millimoles per liter of water. Column BK in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Xenon measured, mMoles / L
Xenon measured, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon measured, millimoles per liter of water. Column BL in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Xenon error, mMoles / L
Xenon error, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon error, millimoles per liter of water. Column BM in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Nitrogen measured, mMoles / L
Nitrogen measured, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen measured, millimoles per liter of water. Column BN in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mMoles / L: Nitrogen error, mMoles / L
Nitrogen error, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen error, millimoles per liter of water. Column BO in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Helium measured, mGrams / L
Helium measured, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium measured, milligrams per liter of water. Column BP in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Helium error, mGrams / L
Helium error, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium error, milligrams per liter of water. Column BQ in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Neon measured, mGrams / L
Neon measured, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon measured, milligrams per liter of water. Column BR in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Neon error, mGrams / L
Neon error, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon error, milligrams per liter of water. Column BS in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Argon measured, mGrams / L
Argon measured, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon measured, milligrams per liter of water. Column BT in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Argon error, mGrams / L
Argon error, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon error, milligrams per liter of water. Column BU in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Krypton measured, mGrams / L
Krypton measured, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton measured, milligrams per liter of water. Column BV in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Krypton error, mGrams / L
Krypton error, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton error, milligrams per liter of water. Column BW in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Xenon measured, mGrams / L
Xenon measured, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon measured, milligrams per liter of water. Column BX in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Xenon error, mGrams / L
Xenon error, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon error, milligrams per liter of water. Column BY in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Nitrogen measured, mGrams / L
Nitrogen measured, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen measured, milligrams per liter of water. Column BZ in spreadsheet.
Measured Gases, mGrams / L: Nitrogen error, mGrams / L
Nitrogen error, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen error, milligrams per liter of water. Column CA in spreadsheet.
Recharge Conditions: Density (T,S), kg/L
Density (T,S), kilograms per liter
U.S. Geological Survey
Density (T,S), kilograms per liter. Column CB in spreadsheet.
Recharge Conditions: Pressure, mbar
Pressure, mbar
U.S. Geological Survey
Pressure, mbar. Column CC in spreadsheet.
Recharge Conditions: P H2O, mbar
P H2O, mbar
U.S. Geological Survey
P H2O, mbar. Column CD in spreadsheet.
Recharge Conditions: P-factor for Weiss
P-factor for Weiss
U.S. Geological Survey
P-factor for Weiss. Column CE in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, cc STP/g of H20: Helium solubility, cc STP/g of H2O
Helium solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CF in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, cc STP/g of H20: Neon solubility, cc STP/g of H2O
Neon solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CG in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, cc STP/g of H20: Argon solubility, cc STP/g of H2O
Argon solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CH in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, cc STP/g of H20: Krypton solubility, cc STP/g of H2O
Krypton solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CI in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, cc STP/g of H20: Xenon solubility, cc STP/g of H2O
Xenon solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CJ in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, cc STP/g of H20: Nitrogen solubility, cc STP/g of H2O
Nitrogen solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen solubility, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CK in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, cc STP/g of H20: Helium excess air, cc STP/g of H2O
Helium excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CL in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, cc STP/g of H20: Neon excess air, cc STP/g of H2O
Neon excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CM in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, cc STP/g of H20: Argon excess air, cc STP/g of H2O
Argon excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CN in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, cc STP/g of H20: Krypton excess air, cc STP/g of H2O
Krypton excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CO in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, cc STP/g of H20: Xenon excess air, cc STP/g of H2O
Xenon excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CP in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, cc STP/g of H20: Nitrogen excess air, cc STP/g of H2O
Nitrogen excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen excess air, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CQ in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, cc STP/g of H20: Helium total, cc STP/g of H2O
Helium total, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium total, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CR in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, cc STP/g of H20: Neon total, cc STP/g of H2O
Neon total, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon total, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CS in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, cc STP/g of H20: Argon total, cc STP/g of H2O
Argon total, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon total, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CT in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, cc STP/g of H20: Krypton total, cc STP/g of H2O
Krypton total, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton total, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CU in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, cc STP/g of H20: Xenon total, cc STP/g of H2O
Xenon total, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon total, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CV in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, cc STP/g of H20: Nitrogen total, cc STP/g of H2O
Nitrogen total, cubic centimeters per gram of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen total, cubic centimeters per gram of water. Column CW in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mMoles / L: Helium solubility, mMoles / L
Helium solubility, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium solubility, millimoles per liter of water. Column CX in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mMoles / L: Neon solubility, mMoles / L
Neon solubility, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon solubility, millimoles per liter of water. Column CY in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mMoles / L: Argon solubility, mMoles / L
Argon solubility, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon solubility, millimoles per liter of water. Column CZ in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mMoles / L: Krypton solubility, mMoles / L
Krypton solubility, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton solubility, millimoles per liter of water. Column DA in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mMoles / L: Xenon solubility, mMoles / L
Xenon solubility, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon solubility, millimoles per liter of water. Column DB in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mMoles / L: Nitrogen solubility, mMoles / L
Nitrogen solubility, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen solubility, millimoles per liter of water. Column DC in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mMoles / L: Helium excess air, mMoles / L
Helium excess air, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium excess air, millimoles per liter of water. Column DD in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mMoles / L: Neon excess air, mMoles / L
Neon excess air, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon excess air, millimoles per liter of water. Column DE in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mMoles / L: Argon excess air, mMoles / L
Argon excess air, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon excess air, millimoles per liter of water. Column DF in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mMoles / L: Krypton excess air, mMoles / L
Krypton excess air, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton excess air, millimoles per liter of water. Column DG in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mMoles / L: Xenon excess air, mMoles / L
Xenon excess air, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon excess air, millimoles per liter of water. Column DH in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mMoles / L: Nitrogen excess air, mMoles / L
Nitrogen excess air, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen excess air, millimoles per liter of water. Column DI in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, mMoles / L: Helium total, mMoles / L
Helium total, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium total, millimoles per liter of water. Column DJ in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, mMoles / L: Neon total, mMoles / L
Neon total, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon total, millimoles per liter of water. Column DK in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, mMoles / L: Argon total, mMoles / L
Argon total, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon total, millimoles per liter of water. Column DL in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, mMoles / L: Krypton total, mMoles / L
Krypton total, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton total, millimoles per liter of water. Column DM in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, mMoles / L: Xenon total, mMoles / L
Xenon total, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon total, millimoles per liter of water. Column DN in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentration, mMoles / L: Nitrogen total, mMoles / L
Nitrogen total, millimoles per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen total, millimoles per liter of water. Column DO in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mGrams / L: Helium solubility, mGrams / L
Helium solubility, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium solubility, milligrams per liter of water. Column DP in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mGrams / L: Neon solubility, mGrams / L
Neon solubility, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon solubility, milligrams per liter of water. Column DQ in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mGrams / L: Argon solubility, mGrams / L
Argon solubility, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon solubility, milligrams per liter of water. Column DR in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mGrams / L: Krypton solubility, mGrams / L
Krypton solubility, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton solubility, milligrams per liter of water. Column DS in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mGrams / L: Xenon solubility, mGrams / L
Xenon solubility, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon solubility, milligrams per liter of water. Column DT in spreadsheet.
Gas Solubilities, mGrams / L: Nitrogen solubility, mGrams / L
Nitrogen solubility, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen solubility, milligrams per liter of water. Column DU in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mGrams / L: Helium excess air, mGrams / L
Helium excess air, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium excess air, milligrams per liter of water. Column DV in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mGrams / L: Neon excess air, mGrams / L
Neon excess air, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon excess air, milligrams per liter of water. Column DW in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mGrams / L: Argon excess air, mGrams / L
Argon excess air, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon excess air, milligrams per liter of water. Column DX in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mGrams / L: Krypton excess air, mGrams / L
Krypton excess air, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton excess air, milligrams per liter of water. Column DY in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mGrams / L: Xenon excess air, mGrams / L
Xenon excess air, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon excess air, milligrams per liter of water. Column DZ in spreadsheet.
Gas Excess Air, mGrams / L: Nitrogen excess air, mGrams / L
Nitrogen excess air, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen excess air, milligrams per liter of water. Column EA in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Helium total, mGrams / L
Helium total, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Helium total, milligrams per liter of water. Column EB in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Neon total, mGrams / L
Neon total, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Neon total, milligrams per liter of water. Column EC in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Argon total, mGrams / L
Argon total, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Argon total, milligrams per liter of water. Column ED in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Krypton total, mGrams / L
Krypton total, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Krypton total, milligrams per liter of water. Column EE in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Xenon total, mGrams / L
Xenon total, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Xenon total, milligrams per liter of water. Column EF in spreadsheet.
Total Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Nitrogen total, mGrams / L
Nitrogen total, milligrams per liter of water
U.S. Geological Survey
Nitrogen total, milligrams per liter of water. Column EG in spreadsheet.
Excess air for CE model, cc/kg: Helium excess air for CE model, cc/kg
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air
U.S. Geological Survey
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air. Column EH in spreadsheet.
Excess air for CE model, cc/kg: Neon excess air for CE model, cc/kg
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air
U.S. Geological Survey
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air. Column EI in spreadsheet.
Excess air for CE model, cc/kg: Argon excess air for CE model, cc/kg
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air
U.S. Geological Survey
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air. Column EJ in spreadsheet.
Excess air for CE model, cc/kg: Krypton excess air for CE model, cc/kg
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air
U.S. Geological Survey
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air. Column EK in spreadsheet.
Excess air for CE model, cc/kg: Xenon excess air for CE model, cc/kg
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air
U.S. Geological Survey
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air. Column EL in spreadsheet.
Excess air for CE model, cc/kg: Nitrogen excess air for CE model, cc/kg
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air
U.S. Geological Survey
Computed concentration of excess air for closed-system equilibration model of excess air. Column EM in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: Number of simulations
Number of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Number of monte carlo simulations. Column EN in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Avg Recharge Temp, degrees Celsius
Average recharge temperature of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average recharge temperature of monte carlo simulations. Column EO in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Recharge Temp Err, 1-Sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized recharge temperature
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized recharge temperature. Column EP in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Avg Excess Air, cc STP/kg of H2O
Average excess air of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average excess air of monte carlo simulations. Column EQ in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Excess Air Err, 1-Sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized excess air
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized excess air. Column ER in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Avg Entrapped Air, cc STP/kg of H2O
Average entrapped air of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average entrapped air of monte carlo simulations. Column ES in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Entrapped Air Err, 1-Sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized entrapped air
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized entrapped air. Column ET in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Avg Fractionation, dimensionless
Average fractionation of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average fractionation of monte carlo simulations. Column EU in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Fractionation Err, 1-Sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized fractionation
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized fractionation. Column EV in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Avg Excess Nitrogen, mg/L as N
Average excess nitrogen gas of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average excess nitrogen gas of monte carlo simulations. Column EW in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Excess Nitrogen Err, 1-Sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized excess nitrogen gas
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized excess nitrogen gas. Column EX in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Avg Salinity, per mil
Average salinity of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average salinity of monte carlo simulations. Column EY in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Salinity Err, 1-Sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized salinity
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized salinity. Column EZ in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Avg Recharge Elevation, meters
Average recharge elevation of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average recharge elevation of monte carlo simulations. Column FA in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Simulation results: MC Recharge Elevation Err, 1-Sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized recharge elevation
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulations for optimized recharge elevation. Column FB in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: MC Avg. Helium, cc STP/g of H2O
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FC in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: Helium err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FD in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: MC Avg. Neon, cc STP/g of H2O
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FE in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: Neon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FF in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: MC Avg. Argon, cc STP/g of H2O
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FG in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: Argon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FH in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: MC Avg. Krypton, cc STP/g of H2O
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FI in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: Krypton err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FJ in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: MC Avg. Xenon, cc STP/g of H2O
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FK in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: Xenon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FL in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: MC Avg. Nitrogen, cc STP/g of H2O
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FM in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, cc STP/g of H2O: Nitrogen err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FN in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: MC Avg. Helium, mMoles / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FO in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: Helium err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FP in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: MC Avg. Neon, mMoles / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FQ in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: Neon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FR in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: MC Avg. Argon, mMoles / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FS in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: Argon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FT in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: MC Avg. Krypton, mMoles / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FU in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: Krypton err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FV in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: MC Avg. Xenon, mMoles / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FW in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: Xenon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FX in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: MC Avg. Nitrogen, mMoles / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column FY in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mMoles / L: Nitrogen err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column FZ in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: MC Avg. Helium, mGrams / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column GA in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Helium err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column GB in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: MC Avg. Neon, mGrams / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column GC in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Neon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column GD in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: MC Avg. Argon, mGrams / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column GE in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Argon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column GF in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: MC Avg. Krypton, mGrams / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column GG in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Krypton err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column GH in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: MC Avg. Xenon, mGrams / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column GI in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Xenon err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column GJ in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: MC Avg. Nitrogen, mGrams / L
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations
U.S. Geological Survey
Average concentration of monte carlo simulations. Column GK in spreadsheet.
Monte Carlo Gas Concentrations, mGrams / L: Nitrogen err, 1-sigma
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations
U.S. Geological Survey
1-sigma error of monte carlo simulated concentrations. Column GL in spreadsheet.
TracerLPM is an interactive Excel® (2007 or later) workbook program for evaluating groundwater age distributions from environmental tracer data by using lumped parameter models (LPMs). Lumped parameter models are mathematical models of transport based on simplified aquifer geometry and flow configurations that account for effects of hydrodynamic dispersion or mixing within the aquifer, well bore, or discharge area. Five primary models are included in the workbook: piston-flow model (PFM), exponential mixing model (EMM), exponential piston-flow model (EPM), partial exponential model (PEM), and dispersion model (DM). Binary mixing models (BMM) can be created by combining primary models in various combinations. Travel time through the unsaturated zone can be included as an additional parameter. TracerLPM also allows users to enter age distributions determined from other methods, such as particle tracking results from numerical groundwater-flow models or from others not included in this program. Tracers of both young groundwater (anthropogenic atmospheric gases and isotopic substances indicating post-1940s recharge) and much older groundwater (carbon-14 and helium-4) can be interpreted simultaneously so that estimates of the groundwater age distribution for samples with a wide range of ages can be constrained.
TracerLPM is organized to permit a comprehensive interpretive approach consisting of hydrogeologic conceptualization, visual examination of data and models, and best-fit parameter estimation. Groundwater age distributions can be evaluated by comparing measured and modeled tracer concentrations in two ways: (1) multiple tracers analyzed simultaneously can be evaluated against each other for concordance with modeled concentrations (tracer-tracer application) or (2) tracer time-series data can be evaluated for concordance with modeled trends (tracer-time application). Groundwater-age estimates can also be obtained for samples with a single tracer measurement at one point in time; however, prior knowledge of an appropriate is required because the mean age is often non-unique.
LPM output concentrations depend on model parameters and sample date. All of thes have a parameter for mean age. The EPM, PEM, and DM have an additional parameter that characterizes the degree of age mixing in the sample. BMMs have a parameter for the fraction of the first component in the mixture. An, together with its parameter values, provides a description of the age distribution or the fractional contribution of water for every age of recharge contained within a sample. For the PFM, the age distribution is a unit pulse at one distinct age. For the others, the age distribution can be much broader and span decades, centuries, millennia, or more. For a sample with a mixture of groundwater ages, the reported interpretation of tracer data includes the name, the mean age, and the values of any other independent model parameters.
TracerLPM also can be used for simulating the responses of wells, springs, streams, or other groundwater discharge receptors to nonpoint-source contaminants that are introduced in recharge, such as nitrate. This is done by combining an or user-defined age distribution with information on contaminant loading at the water table. Information on historic contaminant loading can be used to help evaluate a model’s ability to match real world conditions and understand observed contaminant trends, while information on future contaminant loading scenarios can be used to forecast potential contaminant trends.
Jurgens, B.C., Bohlke, J.K. and Eberts, S.M. (2012) TracerLPM (version 1): An Excel workbook for interpreting groundwater age distributions from environmental tracers, U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report 4-F3, p. 60.
U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
U.S. Geological Survey - ScienceBase
mailing and physical
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Unless otherwise stated, all data, metadata and related materials are considered to satisfy the quality standards relative to the purpose for which the data were collected. Although these data and associated metadata have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness and approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), no warranty expressed or implied is made regarding the display or utility of the data for other purposes, nor on all computer systems, nor shall the act of distribution constitute any such warranty.
20200826
Jennifer B Sharpe
U.S. Geological Survey
Geographer
mailing and physical
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